Fiduciary Education Considerations

Rumor has it that regulatory exams of retirement plans continue to include explicit questions about whether a formal education program exists and, if it does, what it contains. Certainly the topic is not new. In 2002, the Working Group on Fiduciary Education and Training made recommendations to the U.S. Department of Labor to include the following:

  • Ensure that everyone understands that a fiduciary must "perform competently" which means, by extension, that he or she must be educated about duties and responsibilities;
  • Appoint someone to lead fiduciary education and outreach on a national basis;
  • Expand guidance as to what constitutes "best practices," adding to guidelines such as "A Look at 401(k) Fees for Employers";
  • Recognize that fiduciaries of smaller plans will likely have different training needs than those of larger plan fiduciaries; and
  • Provide helpful tools such as a dedicated hotline, a primer about fiduciary duties and conferences. 

A visit to the U.S. Department of Labor website entitled "Getting it Right - Know Your Fiduciary Responsibilities" yields a treasure trove of educational publications and hyper links to various online tools such as The ERISA Fiduciary Advisor. In addition, there are countless organizations that provide extensive fiduciary programs, some of which lead to certifications should one pass exams and meet experiential mandates. I myself have both taken and led various workshops about investment fiduciary subjects and continue to satisfy the requirements to be an Accredited Investment Fiduciary Analyst.

Yet with the plethora of available information about what it takes to carry out one's fiduciary duties, allegations of breach continue and on a grand scale. During a recent program entitled "ERISA Litigation and Enforcement: The Role of the Independent Fiduciary and Best Practices for Financial Advisors," my co-presenters and I talked about the importance of education and the consequences of not being up to speed on what has to be done on behalf of participants.

Some have suggested that formalizing a training requirement makes sense, adding that guidelines can demonstrate good faith and thereby serve as a defense in the event that a lawsuit is filed against investment fiduciaries down the road. Others counter that too much specificity may not allow for changes in circumstances or be inadequate to the multiple tasks of selecting advisors for more than one specialized asset class or strategy. 

Based on my experience, documentation about how internal fiduciaries are selected, let alone developed, is something of a rare bird. Likewise uncommon is a written policy that explains how investment committee members should be evaluated in terms of performance and by whom. In contrast, nearly all jobs have a specified description, an established pay scale and clear criteria about what makes for a "good" job versus performance that is deemed "unacceptable." Though one might be tempted to conclude that the absence of a formal procurement protocol for a retirement plan fiduciary means that the role is unimportant, nothing could be further from the truth. Serving as a fiduciary is a real job in every sense of the word and should be acknowledged accordingly.

Pension Risk Governance Blog Still Going Strong After Nine Years

Nine years today marked the debut of Since then, I am proud to say that traffic has steadily grown, with continued feedback and suggestions about all sorts of topics. I am deeply grateful to visitors to this independent website for their time and encouragement. While the specific feedback tends to vary by issue or job function, a central theme is clear. Ongoing education about topics such as due diligence, fees, risk management, asset allocation, hedge funds, liquidity and valuation is both needed and desired. In 2015, this award-winning blog will continue its focus on providing objective and helpful information about important subjects that challenge investment stewards and their advisors, attorneys and regulators who oversee the management of more than $30 trillion.

As I point out in "Financial Expert Susan Mangiero Celebrates Ninth Year as Lead Contributor to Pension Risk Governance Blog" (Business Wire, March 25, 2015), "There is never a shortage of subjects to discuss, thanks to ongoing suggestions and contributions from readers and the significant realities of changing demographics, market volatility and new accounting rules."

To date, there are over 900 published analyses, research updates and guest interviews that can be readily accessed by category and keyword. Simply click on the Archives section of For a complimentary subscription to this blog, as posts are published, click here to sign up. Click here to read our Privacy Policy. If you are interested in contributing an educational essay or letting us know about a relevant news item or rule change, please email

Until the next blog post, thank you for your interest!

Calvin Ball and ESOP Governance

Calvin and Hobbes has long been a favorite treat of mine. (I don't have permission to embed a likeness but you can click here for a peek.) This long-running cartoon strip ceased in 1995, ten years after the creation of a mischievous six-year old and his furry feline friend. The brainchild of cartoonist Bill Watterson, Calvin entertained and moralized at the same time, charming a global audience of adults and children alike. In a rare interview, Washington Post reporter Michael Cavna (March 10, 2015) learned from the somewhat reclusive Mr. Watterson that "fantasies are drawn more realistically than reality, since that says a lot about what's going on in Calvin's head." In "America's Most Profound Comic Strip" (Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2015), senior editor at the Weekly Standard, Christopher Caldwell, adds that "...Calvin keeps running into evidence that the world isn't built to his ... specifications" and that his "favorite sport is 'Calvinball,' in which he is entitled to make up the rules as he goes along."

I thought of Calvin and his world views yesterday as I listened to ERISA attorney Ted Becker talk about Employee Stock Ownership Plan ("ESOP") governance. As the lead speaker for an NCEO-sponsored webinar entitled "What the DOL v. GreatBanc Trust Co. ESOP Court Settlement Means for ESOPs," this Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP partner gave some nuts and bolts recommendations that are concrete and therefore radically different from the actions of ERISA trustee "Calvins" who comfort themselves that sloppy work is okay.

Mr. Becker and co-speaker Loren Rodgers (Executive Director of the National Center for Employee Ownership) explained that changing regulatory emphasis on employer security valuation led to what is known as the Fiduciary Process Agreement. Described as a "playbook," the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL") and "GreatBanc Trust Company agreed that it could be used for future transactions by an ESOP fiduciary in which the ESOP purchases or sells employer securities that are not publicly traded." Engaging an independent and qualified valuation advisor and then adequately reviewing (and understanding) the resulting information used to carry out the valuation are two of the recommendations for trustees.

In the official source file ("Agreement Concerning Fiduciary Engagements And Process Requirements For Employer Stock Transactions" dated June 2, 2014), readers are reminded of the importance of process for multiple tasks. Among other things, this roadmap details what should be documented by the ESOP Trustee when choosing a valuation advisor, to include:

  • "The reason for selecting the particular valuation advisor;
  • A list of all the valuation advisors that the Trustee considered;
  • A discussion of the qualifications of the valuation advisors that the Trustee considered;
  • A list of references checked and discussion of the references' views on the vauation advisors;
  • Whether the valuation advisor was the subject of prior criminal or civil proceedings; and
  • A full explanation of the bases for concluding that the Trustee's selection of the valuation advisor was prudent."

This guiding document likewise lays out suggestions about process regarding the fiduciary review of any potential transaction such as buying or selling employer securities that are not publicly traded, the reliance on the valuation report and much more. As independent fiduciary Mitch Shames writes in "Once Again, Strong Process and Substance Matters" (September 11, 2014), "... DOL requires that the fiduciary be an active participant in an ESOP transaction...far from a passive role."

Having been trained as an appraiser and someone who has (a) rendered opinions of value (b) reviewed others' valuations (c) critiqued valuation models (d) taught valuation courses and (e) served as an expert witness, I know firsthand that inappropriate assumptions, bad data and short cuts are likely to create headaches. Quality of valuations that are used for statutory and commercial reasons can and do vary - sometimes materially so. A "quickie" appraisal that ignores fundamentals about an industry let's say or proceeds from grossly inflated management projections are two potential vulnerabilities. The danger is that an inadequate valuation report potentially creates a domino effect of unwanted outcomes because it is used as a driver to make subsequent decisions. For example, ESOP trustees with multiple suitors may select the "wrong" buyer or approve a recapitalization that would not otherwise occur had a better valuation assessment been used. Valuation numbers are frequently inputs as opposed to the end goal.

Big numbers are involved so it's no surprise that ESOP governance is garnering close scrutiny. According to "The Current State of ESOPs," 2012 ESOP assets exceeded $1.059 trillion with 13.824 million participants in 6,908 plans.

On a separate note, I am speaking at the annual conference of the National Center for Employee Ownership, to be held this year in Denver from April 20, 2015 to April 23, 2015. Entitled "Effective Boards of Directors: Obligations, Recruitment and Compensation," my panel will "cover the standards and responsibilities of directors in the board room, how committees function, building a sustainable board structure and standards and surveys for establishing and measuring compensation to reward the performance of directors." Attorney Kevin G. Long (Shareholder with Chang Ruthenberg & Long PC) and Ms. Nancy Wiefek (Research Project Director with NCEO) will co-present.

ERISA Litigation and Enforcement: Role of Independent Fiduciary and Financial Advisor Best Practices

Mark your calendars to attend an educational webinar entitled "ERISA Litigation and Enforcement: The Role of the Independent Fiduciary and Best Practices for Financial Advisors." Sponsored by fi360 and eligible for continuing education credit, this April 8, 2015 event will take place between 3:00 pm and 4:00 pm EST and address important and timely issues for plan sponsors and their advisors. Details are provided below.

Description: ERISA litigation and enforcement increasingly involves allegations of conflicts of interest and imprudent decision-making on the part of advisors, consultants, banks and asset managers. In several recent matters, regulators and judges have made it clear that the use of an independent fiduciary would be interpreted as a reflection of procedural prudence and the absence of an independent fiduciary could hasten a decision of fiduciary breach.

Learning objectives:

  • Learn about relevant cases and regulatory actions that involve third parties such as financial advisors;
  • Hear a discussion about how advisors, consultants, banks and asset managers can work effectively to demonstrate procedural prudence; and
  • Better understand what state trust law and ERISA oversight activity means for advisors and consultants who work with non-ERISA trusts.


  • Thomas Clark, Esquire (Counsel - The Wagner Law Group)
  • Susan Mangiero, PhD, AIFA, CFA, FRM, PPC (Managing Director - Fiduciary Leadership, LLC)
  • Mitchell Shames, Esquire (Partner - Harrison Fiduciary Group) 

Please join as your schedule permits. Click here to register.

Fiduciary Outsourcing Considerations

I try hard to avoid duplication when contributing to this retirement plan blog ( versus writing about investment compliance on a broader scale ( However, there are times when I believe a topic has equal appeal to both plan sponsors and their advisers, attorneys, asset managers and other types of vendors.

With that in mind, I invite you to read "Fiduciary Outsourcing Considerations." As I have said both in private conversations and in public speeches, my work as a forensic economist (and sometimes testifying expert witness) leads me to predict that disputes between institutional investors and service providers are unlikely to disappear any time soon. The good news is that those who take governance seriously have a wonderful opportunity to develop and maintain business with risk management focused pension funds, endowments, foundations and other types of buyers.

Dr. Susan Mangiero Invited to Speak About ESOP Governance

Dr. Susan Mangiero is delighted to announce that she has accepted an invitation from The National Center for Employee Ownership ("NCEO") to speak at its upcoming annual conference in Denver. She will be joined at the podium by employee benefits attorney Kevin G. Long (Shareholder with Chang Ruthenberg & Long PC) and Ms. Nancy Wiefek (Research Project Director with NCEO). The panel will address "Effective Boards of Directors: Obligations, Recruiting & Compensation."

Dr. Mangiero is an Accredited Investment Fiduciary Analyst®, CFA® charterholder, Financial Risk Manager - Certified by the Global Association of Risk Professionals and Professional Plan Consultant™. She is frequently engaged to carry out fiduciary-related analyses for compliance purposes or as an expert witness.

Join us at this important conference. Click to learn more about this year's NCEO event.

Santa Claus and the Fiduciary Standard

At this time of the year, when Santa Claus is making his list of who has been naughty and nice, optimists rub their hands in glee, anticipating a stocking full of goodies. Pessimistic believers resign themselves to something worse. In pension land, if you embrace fiduciary change, the incoming head of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee may be about to hand you the proverbial lump of coal.

According to Washington Bureau Chief Melanie Waddell, Senator Orrin Hatch intends to push anew for the passage of his Secure Annuities for Employee Retirement or "SAFE" Act. He spoke about pension reform and the "pension debt crisis" on July 9, 2013 in his "Introduction of the SAFE Retirement Act of 2013."  His objective is to "stop the Department of Labor from writing fiduciary rules for individual retirement accounts" and "over-regulating IRA investment advice." See "Sen. Hatch's 2015 Priority: Torpedo DOL Fiduciary Efforts" (Investment Advisor Magazine, December 15, 2014).

Put forward as a Conflict of Interest Rule-Investment Advice, the U.S. Department of Labor seeks to "reduce harmful conflicts of interest by amending the regulatory definition of the term 'fiduciary' set forth at 29 CFR 2510.3-21(c) to more broadly define as fiduciaries those persons who render investment advice to plans and IRAs for a fee within the meaning of section 3(21) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and section 4975(e)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. The amendment would take into account current practices of investment advisers, and the expectations of plan officials and participants, and IRA owners who receive investment advice, as well as changes that have occurred in the investment marketplace, and in the ways advisers are compensated that frequently subject advisers to harmful conflicts of interest."

As with any mandate, if approved, some will be impacted more than others. In its "DOL 2014 Fall Regulatory Agenda," ERISA attorneys Fred Reish, Bruce Ashton and their Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP colleagues assert that broker-dealers and their registered representatives will likely bear the brunt of new rules. They write that "Adoption of an expanded definition will likely affect both the status for broker-dealers as fiduciaries and their compensation (due to the fiduciary prohibited transaction rules of ERISA). In response, these broker-dealers may need to develop RIA fiduciary programs for advisors who focus on retirement plans and decide how to manage the plan business of those who do not."

Whatever your holiday preference may be, keep a look out for the "gifts" that 2015 has in store for plan sponsors and their service providers.

ERISA Whistle Blowers

In the aftermath of the November 17, 2014 Strafford CLE webinar entitled ERISA Plan Investment Committee Governance, I asked several attorneys for their thoughts about whistle blower protection.

Attorney Stephen P. Wilkes, Of Counsel to The Wagner Law Group, took time out of a busy schedule to share his thoughts about a hypothetical scenario. He wrote the following:

Person X, a corporate officer, is a member of the Investment Committee for the corporate retirement plan ("Plan"). Person X determines that a specific course of action is in the best interest of the Plan (e.g. remove employer securities as an investment option or replace Bank Y with Bank Z as trustee). However, the Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") of this made-up company inappropriately steers the decision to one that serves the corporate interest and not the Plan interest (e.g. maintain employer securities as an investment option or continue to use Bank Y as trustee because it is providing corporate finance services to the company at below-market prices).What is Person X to do? He or she has a duty to serve the company and its shareholders, yet as an ERISA fiduciary, is there is a duty owed in this instance to the Plan and its participants? Person X complains to the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL"). Five months later, Person X is terminated from employment by the CFO for "performance issues."

There is an inherent conflict of interest when corporate officers serve in an ERISA fiduciary capacity. The DOL and the U.S. Supreme Court have each determined that one can wear dual hats (sometimes an ERISA fiduciary, other times not an ERISA fiduciary),

In this hypothetical situation, Person X is clearly wearing the ERISA fiduciary hat when engaged in Plan Investment Committee work and owes the corresponding duty at that time to the Plan and its participants and beneficiaries.

The very purpose of the whistleblower statutes (such as ERISA Section 510 or Sarbanes-Oxley Section 1514A) is to root out problems and protect the reporting individual (the "whistleblower") from retaliation in this sort of scenario.The legal mechanism is in place to protect whistleblowers.There are some legal distinctions yet to be fully resolved about whether or not a particular retaliation is unlawful or not. They turn on whether an employee "has given information or has testified or is about to testify in any inquiry or proceeding." In other words, there are some open legal issues about whether unsolicited grievances are protected (as compared to whistle-blowing about ERISA violations during an active or ongoing investigation).

The question as to whether the presence of senior management who serve alongside mid-level or junior-level employees at the ERISA fiduciary table creates a "chilling" effect is a good one. Though the answer ultimately turns on the compliance culture of each company, potential problems can be mitigated well in advance with solid corporate governance and ERISA fiduciary training, as well as having appropriate policies and procedures in place with regard to risk management.

On behalf of the readers of Pension Risk Matters, thank you Attorney Wilkes.Your insights are much appreciated.

Susan Mangiero of Fiduciary Leadership, LLC Earns the "Professional Plan Consultant" (PPC) Credential

Trumbull, CT (November 6, 2014) – Dr. Susan Mangiero is pleased to announce her designation by Financial Service Standards, a division of fi360, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA) in the area of retirement plan consulting.  She is the recipient of this specialized designation known as the Professional Plan Consultant or PPC.

Recent regulatory changes to the qualified retirement plan industry have sparked an urgency to ensure that retirement plan service professionals have specialized training and resources to help sponsors meet their fiduciary obligations and a means of documenting that prudent practices are being followed in the management of an employer-sponsored plan.  Those professionals that help retirement plan fiduciaries and their counsel are seeking accreditation and certification to demonstrate a high level of knowledge and the ability to provide sponsors with the tools necessary to manage their plan effectively.

The Professional Plan Consultant™ designation was developed by Financial Service Standards with a goal of helping professionals that work with employer-sponsored retirement plans specialize in this increasingly regulated niche of the financial industry.  Program graduates must sit for either a two-day training class or complete the equivalent web-based training program, pass a comprehensive final exam, sign off on the FSS Code of Ethics, and commit to ongoing training in retirement plan management. 

Susan Mangiero is a Managing Director with Fiduciary Leadership, LLC. She is a CFA charterholder, certified Financial Risk Manager and Accredited Investment Fiduciary AnalystTM. Dr. Mangiero has been working within the investment management industry for over twenty years. She provides a variety of investment risk governance and valuation services to attorneys, regulators, asset managers, investment committees and other types of fiduciaries. Services include board training, business intelligence surveys, calculation of damages for dispute resolution purposes, expert witness testimony, investment best practices research, white papers, financial model reviews and procedural prudence assessments. She is the author of Risk Management for Pensions, Endowments and Foundations and the lead contributor to the award-winning blog,

According to Dr. Mangiero, she is proud and excited to have received this distinguished designation. "It requires industry experience and reflects my dedication to raising the service standards in the retirement plan industry, whether for 401(k) plans, defined benefit ("pension") plans, Employee Stock Ownership Plans ("ESOP"s) or other types of employee benefit arrangements. This designation is an indicator that a professional has added to her knowledge and can access unique tools and resources that can help plan sponsors meet certain industry requirements."

Sharon Pivirotto, Founder & Managing Director of Financial Service Standards of Pittsburgh congratulates Dr. Mangiero on this achievement and "applauds her initiative to help customers plan, build and maintain a successful and compliant company-sponsored retirement plan. This kind of commitment and service approach ultimately means better retirements for many employees."

The 40lk Service Training Program, sponsored by Financial Service Standards, has been accepted for 12.5 continuing education credits by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards Inc. The PPC designation is listed on the FINRA website.

Fiduciary Leadership, LLC is an investment risk governance and forensic economic analysis consulting company. Clients include asset managers, transactional attorneys, litigation attorneys, regulators and institutional investors.

Decision Making When You Don't Like Your Colleagues

As an independent economic consultant, I am fortunate to have flexibility as to project selection and the make-up of my team. From what I hear from colleagues, others don't feel as lucky. They tell me they feel stuck in a situation where they have important duties to carry out but do not necessarily trust or like their work mates. This could be dangerous, especially since plan fiduciaries are exposed to personal liability.

I've heard some say that you can dislike someone yet still have respect for their knowledge and integrity. Others suggest that you may want to break bread with an individual over lunch but want to avoid having to depend on their judgment about serious matters. I supposed the ideal is to both like and trust someone to be careful about things such as vendor selection, changing an investment line-up, freezing a plan and so on. When the perfect combination of sparkle, professionalism and gray matter is non-existent, what should a fiduciary do?

I haven't seen much on this topic about how to select someone to serve as a fiduciary of a pension fund with respect to their personality and integrity. One public plan trustee asked for my opinion about a committee on which he served. His concern had to do with what he deemed to be anemic attempts on the part of one of his colleagues to gather information about various asset managers and asset classes. His fear was that this person would vote "yea" or "nay" without a proper basis. I told him that his anxiety was far from trivial. Based on my experience, this gentleman was right to be scared. When a fiduciary breach complaint is filed, all past and present members of the investment committee are often cited as defendants. The notion is that the fiduciaries were making important decisions on a collective basis.

In my view, there is room for improvement as to how pension plan fiduciaries are selected, trained, monitored for appropriate performance and terminated, as needed. It wouldn't hurt to assess the friendliness factor of each candidate either. Not that everyone has to bond over Friday night pasta but the investment committee typically works as a team. It is important that the members of said team can have an open and meaningful exchange among one another, debate various topics in depth and decide what makes sense for participants thereafter. Speaking in plain language helps. See "Even Pension Board Members Can't Understand Pension Jargon" by Ari Bloomekatz (Voice of San Diego, September 5, 2014), for an interesting example of questions that fiduciaries are right to ask and the disparate level of investment knowledge reflected on a board.

If you have a good story to tell about investment committee dynamics, email  

ERISA Advisory Council Investigating Fiduciary Management

According to a 2014 statement, the ERISA Advisory Council intends to investigate the nature of retirement plan outsourcing and report its research to the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL"). "Outsourcing Employee Benefit Plan Services" cites objectives to include the following:

  • Discussion about current practices in outsourcing and whether variables such as plan size or type impact the services provided to ERISA plans;
  • Clarification of "the legal framework under ERISA for retaining outsourced service providers..." and possible areas for regulatory guidance;
  • Getting suggestions about the management of potential conflicts of interest;
  • Further discussing the "scope of co-fiduciary liability in the outsourcing context" for 3(16), 3(21) and 3(38) relationships;
  • Discussion about how contracts are put together between an ERISA plan and a service provider to address issues such as termination rights, indemnification, liability caps; and
  • Examination of insurance coverage and ERISA bonds when an outsourcing arrangement exists.

This news is not particularly surprising. The topic of fiduciary management continues to attract attention, in part because it appears to be growing as a business model in the United States, United Kingdom and elsewhere. According to a survey of 73 pension plans and their advisors, Buck Consultants found that 70% "had at least considered going down that route." For those schemes that that had engaged a fiduciary manager, they cited motivations such as "improved speed in the decision making process, greater focus on the end game, and improved expertise." At the same time, UK-based Brian McCauley, Head of Fiduciary Evaluation at Buck Consultants, added that the governance burden is still "huge." In "Perceptions of Fiduciary Management," Stephenson Harwood attorney Fraser Sparks addresses concern about conceivable conflict of interest trouble spots when "an advisor turns into a provider." One offered solution is to engage an independent third party to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fiduciary manager short list candidates.

Stateside, ERISA legal experts debate the pros and cons of the outsourced fiduciary approach. In "New flavor of outsourced fiduciary for retirement plans hits the market" Investment News reporter Darla Mercado writes that "This latest service offering is popping up in an era when plan sponsors have a heightened awareness of their fiduciary responsibilities and are looking to offload some of them so that they can get back to the day-to-day work of running their business." Drinker Biddle & Reath attorney, C. Frederick Reish, talks about "3(16) lite" and the need to "[r]ead the fine print." The April 2, 2014 piece emphasizes that "...plan sponsors still have the responsibility of choosing and monitoring their service providers."

In "Expert Q&A on Outsourcing Fiduciary Investment Responsibilities" (Practical Law, February 2014), Groom Law attorneys David N. Levine and Allison Tumilty explain the legal dimensions of outsourcing fiduciary investment responsibilities and the advantages and disadvantages of passing the baton for certain delegated tasks. They add that outsourcing "can be appropriate for defined benefit and defined contribution plans of all sizes."

From my perch as a forensic economist who is sometimes hired to give expert testimony, I have observed a larger number of cases being filed that address the relationship between plan sponsor and service provider. Whether that trend continues remains to be seen. Given the foregoing, the ERISA Advisory Council inquiry is likely to be both timely and informative.

Bad Hair Day in Investment Fiduciary Land

From time to time, I have allowed students at the local beauty school to learn on a real head - mine. Invariably, I regret my decision, so much so that I am now resigned to using a professional service for future visits. Originally, I thought I could save some money for services that I always thought of as routine. Too many "bad" visits later, I have decided that hair cuts and coloring should be carried out by experienced persons who may charge more money but save me time and grief. Really, how often does one need to have a beauty disaster before the truth sets in that paying for knowledge is a good trade?

Applied to retirement plan fiduciaries, this "aha" moment begs the question as to what constitutes knowledge. Not surprisingly, the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL") has recognized the need for fiduciary education and responded with its campaign called "Getting It Right - Know Your Fiduciary Responsibilities." According to the DOL website, this program "emphasizes the obligation of plan sponsors and other fiduciaries to:

  • Understand the terms of their plans
  • Select and monitor service providers carefully
  • Make timely contributions to fund benefits
  • Avoid prohibited transactions; and
  • Make timely disclosures to workers and their beneficiaries and reports to the government."

During a presentation I made last week in Atlanta as part of the National Center for Employee Ownership ("NCEO") annual conference and entitled "ESOP Company Strategic Decision Making," I suggested that sponsors include a budget line for training. Whether that takes the form of internal training or having an outside expert develop and lead an educational curriculum for fiduciaries will depend on a few factors, including the current status of fiduciary literacy. Continued learning is important for existing fiduciaries as well, especially now with so many new rules and regulations. My co-speaker, Mr. Robert Gross - a Senior Managing Director with Prairie Capital Advisors, Inc. - concurred when the topic switched to the use of outside and corporate counsel. Regular meetings with ERISA legal professionals can be invaluable. At a minimum, a get-together can kick start a meaningful dialogue about the role of the fiduciary, decisions that must be made in a timely fashion and how to select, monitor and evaluate the work being done by individuals with fiduciary responsibilities.

Don't wait for purple hair to realize the high cost of getting a "budget" deal. Focus instead on making sure that everyone involved at the plan level has a solid understanding of what has to be done, when and by whom.

Pensions, Politics and the ERISA Fiduciary Standard

Thanks to the folks at the Mutual Fund Directors Forum for disseminating a January 13, 2014 letter from members of the New Democrat Coalition to the Honorable Thomas Perez, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL"). The gist of the four-page communication is that these members of the current U.S. Congress would like to see regulatory coordination in order to "protect investors while reducing confusion." They add that they are still concerned that a new version of the fiduciary standard, when proposed anew, might discourage plan participant literacy and disclosures. The worry seems to be that individuals with low or middle incomes as well as small businesses could be adversely impacted, depending on the ultimate version.

According to the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association ("SIFMA") website, Republicans have likewise communicated their concerns to the U.S. Department of Labor as well as the Office of Management and Budget. These ranged from "the impact on an individuals' choice of provider to potential unintended consequences limiting access to education for millions of individuals saving for retirement." Click to access SIFMA's DOL Fiduciary Standard Resource Center.

On October 29, 2013, the Retail Investor Protection Act (H.R. 2374), sponsored by U.S. Congresswoman Ann Wagner (Republican, 2nd District of Missouri), was approved by the United States House of Representatives in a vote of 254 to 166. According to the Gov Track website, U.S. Congressman Patrick Murphy (Democrat, 18th District of Florida) joined as a co-sponsor on September 19, 2013. The stated legislative intent is to preclude the "Secretary of Labor from prescribing any regulation under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) defining the circumstances under which an individual is considered a fiduciary until 60 days after the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issues a final rule governing standards of conduct for brokers and dealers under specified law." It further prevents the SEC from implementing a rule "establishing an investment advisor standard of conduct as the standard of conduct of brokers and dealers" prior to assessing the likely impact on retail investors. Click to read more about the Retail Investor Protection Act. Click to read the mission of the United States Department of Labor which states "To foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights."

As I have repeatedly predicted in this pension blog and elsewhere, the retirement crisis, not just in the United States but around the world, is increasingly showing up as a political hot button issue. No one wants to lose votes from retirees who are struggling and employees who cannot afford to stop working any time soon. In his State of the Union address, U.S. President Obama described a new type of retirement account, i.e. "myRA," that is meant to help millions of individuals whose companies do not offer retirement plans. See "What you need to know about Obama's 'myRA' retirement accounts" by Melanie Hicken (CNN Money, January 29, 2014). More details will no doubt follow.

There is a lot we don't know about how politics will impede or enhance the state of the global retirement situation. As a free marketeer, I am not particularly optimistic about new rules and regulations that prevent an efficient supply-demand interaction from taking place. However, this is a lengthy topic and the hour is late so I will leave a discussion about the positive and normative aspects of capitalism for another day.

Yoga Lessons For Investment Fiduciaries

I have been practicing yoga for about five years. I try to take four or five 75 minute classes each week. The combination of strength training, balance, meditation and aerobic activity is a time-effective way to exercise, strive for self-improvement and level set, especially after a busy day.

Aside from the personal benefits, I keep coming back to the invaluable lessons one can learn from yoga for an investment fiduciary. Here are a few thoughts.

Persistence matters. Even advanced practitioners recognize the need for care and diligence on a regular basis. Part-time habits seldom generate results. I was thrilled that I could finally succeed at the L-pose against the wall (pictured here, courtesy of instructor Elsie Escobar from Pittsburgh). Indeed, I was able to hold this pose twice in a row last night, after numerous attempts in the last year during yoga class. In addition, I began adding arm and leg weights when at the gym. According to "Yoga Bears: It's No Stretch to Say Traders Are Taking Deep Breaths" by Cassell Bryan-Low (Wall Street Journal, July 24, 2008), "Value the process of hard work..."

Pay attention to limits. Someone who is flexible can take a pose to a different level than someone who is stiff or has an injury. For pension fiduciaries, each plan is different for a variety of reasons. An investment that makes sense for one portfolio may be imprudent for another organization. The composition of the sponsor's talent pool, trading limits and risk tolerance are a few of the factors that could preclude certain securities, service providers and financial structures from being considered.

Focus on posture and form. Not paying attention to alignment could set someone up for an unwanted injury. Luckily, I take classes at a studio with instructors who regularly walk about the room and assist students as needed. An investment fiduciary must focus on process and take care to do sufficient homework before making important decisions such as allocating monies, selecting an asset manager and/or undertaking a liability-driven strategy.

Acknowledge the benefits of learning from others. While movements are necessarily a function of each individual's comfort level and abilities, there is a benefit from watching others strike a pose. Sometimes, an instructor will ask an individual to explain to the rest of the class how he or she has been successful in achieving a certain level of mastery and how long it took that person to realize the goal. Investment fiduciaries need to allocate sufficient time and energy for continuing education, ask questions of others who have "been there, done that" and be bold about watching what governance leaders are doing that makes them effective stewards of other people's money. The converse is to understand what ineffective fiduciaries have done and avoid their mistakes, whenever possible.

Give yourself time to think. When I first started yoga, I found it difficult to quiet my mind. I used the meditation part of class to review my "to do" list in my head. Gradually, I began to focus more on how my body felt in a pose, the sound of the music or the colors in the garden outside the studio. This "forced" effort to relax has been tremendously helpful. I feel refreshed after a class and often find myself with a renewed burst of energy by having taken a time out. For those investment fiduciaries who face continued market volatility, complex product structures and new rules and regulations, taking time to reflect on the primary objectives is a good thing. If guiding documents such as an Investment Policy Statement, Risk Management Policy Statement and/or vendor selection questionnaires by asset class are not yet in place or need revisions, concentrate on the big picture fiduciary obligations first. Getting bogged down with details and ignoring the constructs such as prudence and loyalty could pave the way for litigation, poor performance and worse.

Recognize the importance of what you are doing. While I gain personal satisfaction from the discipline and growth I have experienced as a yoga practitioner, I recognize that there are material health benefits associated with this activity. For investment stewards who get plucked from their everyday tasks and are asked to add fiduciary responsibilities to an already jam-packed day, know that your work - if done well - has a highly positive impact on countless individuals.

For those investment professionals who are interested in exploring the potential gains from practicing yoga, best of luck and "namaste."

Audrey Hepburn, Gary Cooper and Pension Governance

Grab the popcorn. If you haven't seen the 1957 romantic film, "Love in the Afternoon," check it out. No nudity. No violence. No swear words. Just some clever banter, courtesy of Maurice Chevalier, Gary Cooper and Audrey Hepburn. I love these old-fashioned movies for their charm and ease of viewing. They remind viewers that there are some things that never get old. Yes, good ideas are fresh, sound and worth revisiting again and again.

Pension governance comes to mind.

When I created in 2006, my goal was (and still is) to provide educational information about process. Not only is procedural prudence a key element of various trust rules and regulations, it is the cornerstone of effective investment, risk and asset-liability management. Indeed, it is easy to show that bad process can be hugely expensive for plan sponsors and beneficiaries alike.

At the inception of this pension blog, there were few studies and surveys about the topic of pension governance. Things have changed since then. Always an important topic, it is good to know that this "old-fashioned" topic is receiving more attention and will hopefully gain even more visibility over time.

According to a July 23, 2013 press release, a survey of U.K. employers indicates awareness of the importance of pension governance. Sponsored by SEI Investments, the survey answers reflect a frustration that companies need to do more since "current governance structure [do] not allow them to easily take advantage of market conditions to improve their funding levels, with many trustees unable to make informed and timely decisions due to a lack of resources, including limitations of time and/or expertise." Consultant relationships was another queried topic. Nearly one third of respondents expressed a "perceived lack of transparency around the costs associated with traditional investment consultants who often charge separately for investment reviews, manager changes, and ongoing support, and who are not fully accountable to the scheme." Click to learn more about how to access the SEI UK survey.

Will pension governance remain a classic a la Gary Cooper? One certainly hopes so. Too much is at stake for good process to end up on the shelf.

Dr. Susan Mangiero Will Speak at ACI ERISA Litigation Conference

I am delighted to join the roster of multi-disciplinary speakers for this exciting October 24-25, 2013 New York City event. Designed for and by attorneys, the American Conference Institute's 6th National Forum on ERISA Litigation will include comments from renowned judges, in-house counsel, insurance experts, economic consultants and practicing litigators in the ERISA arena. According to the conference flyer, attendees will learn about the following:

  • Emerging trends in multiple facets of ERISA litigation;
  • Understanding new theories of liability arising from investment decisions, including alternative investments and the trend towards de-risking;
  • 401(k) fee case considerations and a discussion about evolving defense strategies, the issue of service providers and the viability of float claims;
  • ESOP litigation to include an overview of DOL investigations and settlements;
  • Benefits claims litigation
  • ERISA fiduciary litigation and ways to minimize liability exposure:
  • Class action update; and
  • Ethical issues that arise in ERISA litigation.

Having spoken and attended prior ERISA litigation conferences sponsored by the American Conference Institute, I always learned a lot. In particular, the discussions among jurists, the plaintiffs' bar and defense counsel makes for a collection of timely and lively debates. I hope you will be similarly satisfied if you decide to attend.

As a courtesy to readers of this blog, the American Conference Institute has activated a discount code of $200 for anyone who registers for the conference. Simply type "PRM200" when prompted. Click here to register. Click to download the agenda.

Pension Risk Governance Blog Celebrates Seventh Birthday

I am delighted to announce our seventh year as an educational resource for the $30+ trillion global retirement plan industry. With over a million visitors to, I appreciate the ongoing feedback and encouragement from financial and legal readers. This blog began as a labor of love and continues to be personally rewarding as a way to help guide the discussions about pension risk, governance and fiduciary duties.

Here is a link to the March 25, 2013 Business Wire press release about, an educational pension risk governance blog for ERISA, public and non-U.S. pension plan trustees and their advisors.

As always, your input is important. Click to send an email with your comments and suggestions.

Thank you!

Pension Risk, Governance and CFO Liability

My November 2011 presentation about pension risk, governance and liability to financial executives struck a chord. Part of a Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") conference held at the New York Stock Exchange, attendees alternatively listened with interest while adding their insights from the front lines here and there. It is no wonder.

With ERISA litigation on the rise and 401(k) and defined benefit plan decisions often driving enterprise value in a material way, CFOs and treasurers have accepted the obvious. Corporate governance and pension governance are inextricably linked. Make a bad decision about an employee benefit plan and participants and shareholders alike may suffer. As a result, the CFO is exposed to fiduciary liability, career risk and the economic consequences of an outcome with broad impact.

Rather than rely on luck, there is no better time to apply discipline and rigor to employee benefit plan management for those companies that have not already done so. With trillions of dollars at stake, properly identifying, measuring and mitigating pension risks continues to be a critical element of fiduciary governance.

The complexity and ongoing nature of the risk management process is sometimes overlooked as less important than realizing a particular rate of return. Recent market volatility, large funding deficits and pressures from creditors, shareholders, rating agencies and plan participants make it harder for pension fiduciaries to avoid the adoption of some type of pro-active risk control strategy that effectively integrates asset and liability economics.

In "Pension risk, governance and CFO liability" by Susan Mangiero (Journal of Corporate Treasury Management, Henry Stewart Publications, Vol 4, 4, 2012, pages 311 to 323), the issues relating to a panoply of risks such as actuarial, fiduciary, investment, legal, operational and valuation uncertainties are discussed within a corporate treasury framework. Article sections include:

  • Enterprise risk management, employee benefit plans and the role of the CFO;
  • Conflicts of interest and pension plan management;
  • Risk management principles and 401(k) plans;
  • Pension liability and mergers, acquisitions and spinoffs;
  • Prudent process;
  • Pension risks; and
  • Benchmarking success.

Click to download "Pension risk, governance and CFO liability" by Dr. Susan Mangiero, CFA, FRM.

Pension Risk Management and Governance: Challenges and Opportunities in a New Era


Please join me and fellow panelists on January 24, 2012 fro. 4 to 6 pm for a topical discussion about pension risk management and governance. Given that the last few years have posed unprecedented challenges for plan sponsors, both corporate and public, as well as their asset managers and consultants, life in employee benefit land will never be the same again. Market volatility, low interest rates, increased scrutiny about carrying out fiduciary duties, calls for better disclosure and greater complexity keep pension decision-makers busy.

Hear what legal and financial professionals have to say about what keeps plan sponsors and their advisors and asset managers up at night and how they can implement best practices for pension risk management within a fiduciary framework.

The roster of speakers who will address both defined benefit and defined contribution plan best practices and concerns include:

  • Mr. William Carey, President, F-Squared Retirement Solutions
  • Attorney Gordon Eng, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer, SKY Harbor Capital Management, LLC
  • Dr. Susan Mangiero, CFA, FRM, Risk and Valuation Consultant and Expert Witness
  • Attorney Martin J. Rosenburgh, CFA
Continue Reading...

Co-Leading Pension Risk Management Workshop in Orlando

I am off to Orlando to address the Florida Public Pension Trustees Association about pension risk management. I will be joined by an esteemed colleague, Dr. Michael Kraten, in a presentation about the fundamentals of enterprise risk management (including the famous COSO cube) and the role of the service provider in creating hedging programs and vetting asset managers who use derivatives. The workshop will include two case studies about foreign currency overlay programs and investing in hedge funds and private equity funds, respectively.

Having addressed the Florida Public Pension Trustees Association ("FPPTA") several times before about pension risk management, I am impressed with its commitment to fiduciary education about investment best practices.

Click here to review the FPPTA agenda for the 2011 summer conference.

Public Pension Risk Management and Fiduciary Liability

A few weeks ago, Attorney Terren B. Magid and Dr. Susan Mangiero jointly presented on the topic of pension risk management and fiduciary liability with a particular emphasis on public plans. Attorney Magid's insights reflect a particularly unique perspective inasmuch as he served as executive director of the $17 billion Indiana Public Employees' Retirement Fund ("PERF"). Dr. Mangiero shares her views as an independent risk management and valuation consultant, author, trainer and expert witness.

Click to download the 25-page webinar transcript for public pension fiduciaries entitled "Are You Properly Mitigating Risk? Assess Your Fiduciary IQ" with Attorney Terren B. Magid (Bingham McHale LLP) and Dr. Susan Mangiero (Fiduciary Leadership, LLC). Comments about ERISA plans are provided when applicable.

Topics discussed include, but are not limited, to the following:

  • Public Pension Transparency Act
  • Discount Rate Choice
  • Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Municipal Advisor Registration
  • Expanded Definition of ERISA Fiduciary
  • Fee Disclosure Under ERISA 408(b)(2)
  • Failure to Pay and Actuarially Required Contribution ("ARC")
  • Benefit Reductions
  • RFP Process
  • Fiduciary Audits
  • D&O Policy Review
  • Vendor Contract Examination
  • Qualitative and Quantitative "Investment Risk Alphabet Soup"
  • Interrelated Risk Factors
  • Key Person Risk
  • Hard to Value Investing
  • Model Risk
  • Stress Testing
  • Pension Litigation
  • Fiduciary Breach Vulnerability
  • Characteristics of a Good Model
  • Side Pockets and Investment Performance.

Comments are welcome.

New Book on 401(k) Issues

In Fixing the 401(k): What Fiduciaries Must Know (And Do) To Help Employees Retire Successfully, author Joshua P. Itzoe suggests that the 401(k) industry is broken and in bad need of repair. As many employers migrate away from defined benefit plans to defined contribution plans, it is critical to understand any weaknesses in the current system and work vigorously to correct them.

Chapter 1 states conflicts of interest and opaque fee disclosures as two of the biggest issues faced by the 401(k) industry. Chapter 3 explains basic fiduciary duties as codified by U.S. pension law in the form of ERISA, co-fiduciary liability and how fiduciary types differ from one another. Subsequent chapters are rich with descriptions of relevant industry players (and there are many of them), inherent conflicts of interest and the generally accepted compensation arrangement for each category of service provider. Though there is an entire chapter devoted to types of fees, it would have been nice to sink one's teeth into some meaty math examples, along with some empirical data about magnitude and dispersion of fees across plans. 

Written for 401(k) fiduciaries, the basic nature of the book is both refreshing but worrisome. If current plan fiduciaries (the target market for the book) are unaware of their core duties, how have they been getting along so far? Far from being pedantic, Mr. Itzoe includes several chapters with concrete advice for improving 401(k) fiduciary practices. His provision of important questions at the end of each chapter is a nice touch, along with some helpful appendices such as a "Sample Fiduciary Audit File," "20 Steps to 404(c) Compliance" and a relatively long glossary. There is no index but a short bibliography is provided for interested readers.

For more information, check out Click to read the author's bio. At $13 and change, I recommend this primer. Kudos to Mr. Itzoe, CFP and Accredited Investment Fiduciary, for putting forth a solid book on an important topic.

Susan Mangiero Moderates Pension - Hedge Fund Mock Deposition

At a time when pensions, endowments and foundations are investing billions of dollars in alternatives such as hedge funds, responsible decision-makers must understand financial and legal risks. If they fail to dig deep or negotiate their interests properly (even when they use a consultant or fund of funds manager), fiduciary breach lawsuits could result. Join Dr. Susan Mangiero, AIFA, AVA, CFA, FRM (President of Pension Governance, LLC); ERISA attorney Noah Weissman (Bryan Cave LLP); and hedge fund attorney Nir Yarden (Bryan Cave LLP) for a mock deposition involving a pension fund’s investment in hedge funds, gone awry. Part of the Fiduciary 360 National Conference, audience members can see what happens during this discovery phase of litigation, watch and hear firsthand what someone in the “hot seat” is likely to experience and learn lessons about proper investment fiduciary process. According to Mangiero, author of "Risk Management for Pensions, Endowments and Foundations" and countless articles about investment risk and valuation, "The challenge is particularly acute when hedge funds invest in 'hard to value' assets or employ complex derivative instrument strategies. Identifying hidden risks can save institutional investors money, reduce stress and avoid harm to reputation."

For more information about this May 7 - 9, 2008 conference, go to For more information about pension best practices, visit

Pension Fund Grinch - Rate Cuts and Investment Complexity

Disappointing many, the Federal Reserve cut rates by a smaller amount than expected. Equity investors responded with a resounding hiss, sending the Dow Jones Industrial Average down nearly 300 points. Defined benefit plan managers can't be too happy either. After all, many of them have more money allocated to stocks than bonds. Then there is the matter of reported net unfunded liabilities rising as rates fall. What's an asset allocator to do?

This blog's author recently read survey results that suggest a significant migration to more complex securities. Not surprisingly, researchers describe a struggle on the part of investors and financial advisors who need higher returns but are not always comfortable that they understand the risks. (See "Financial Advisors to Embrace More Sophisticated Investment Products Over the Next Two Years, According to New Data from Cogent Research," Insurance Newscast, December 7, 2007.) 

I hate to say it folks but here goes. Why invest in something you don't understand? Isn't that part of the reason why the sub-prime debacle is starting to make the S&L crisis look like a walk in the park? Several incidents come to mind.

Following the 1987 market crash, equity put option writers sued their brokers, saying they did not understand the nearly unbounded downside, forcing some into bankruptcy. In the early 1980's, a handful of prominent institutional investors sued their bankers for putting them into complex, new fangled derivatives. One treasurer acknowledged the need to know more, exclaiming "Due to my inexperience, I placed a great deal of reliance on the advice of market professionals….. I wish I had more training in complex government securities."

Mark my words. The courts will be hearing a lot of cases that address who ultimately has responsibility for investment strategies gone awry. Pre-exemptively, pension funds must seek legal counsel to review their fiduciary duties. Nevertheless, as strategies become more complex, there will be sufficient numbers of investors who simply do not understand the risk and, absent good process, will lose money.

This gets back to a point made many times herein. Shouldn't pension decision makers (regardless of plan design) be required and/or encouraged to have a particular familiarity (experience, education) with investment and risk management?

The fact that no such certification requirement exists amazes and disturbs. 

Down by the Bayou (Hedge Fund), Judge Says Too Bad

Alleging breach of fiduciary duty, plaintiff South Cherry Street, LLC cited failure of consulting firm Hennessee Group to do proper due diligence of the now defunct hedge fund, Bayou Group. In response, federal judge Colleen McMahon "granted a defense motion to dismiss the case, finding that Hennessee wasn't alone in being duped by Bayou." (Click here to read the August 3, 2007 Reuters article.)

As several related cases make their way through the courts, pay attention to how the judge rules. Some experts suggest that institutions could be asked to assume more responsibility for the investments they make, even after hiring a consultant.

If true, things are likely to change. After all, why hire someone else if ultimate responsibility stays with the plan sponsor? The import is considerable. Trustees and other internal fiduciaries who now look to outside experts will have to become more expert themselves. (We've long advocated for better fiduciary training and selection standards, whether an outside firm is employed or not. Click here to read a recent blog post on the topic.)

Pension Fiduciaries - Time to Wake Up and Smell the Coffee, Part Three

In his pension blog, ERISA litigator Stephen Rosenberg recently wrote about the forthcoming legal battle between the San Diego County Employees Retirement Association ("SDCERA") and Amaranth Advisors, LLC. In response to an original complaint against the once mighty energy hedge fund, its high-power attorneys countered with a motion to dismiss. Claiming caveat emptor, defendants assert that the plan sponsor understood the risks and went ahead anyhow. Click here to read the original complaint and here to read the motion to dismiss.

How this case will be adjudicated is anyone's guess. Nevertheless, the outcome will be closely watched as it goes to the very heart of investment disputes by asking who bears responsibility.

In our kick-off of the Hedge Fund ToolboxSM webinar series on June 14, 2007, we heard from former FBI agent Mr. Ken Springer (now president of Corporate Resolutions) and senior attorney and former regulator, Rick Slavin (now partner of law firm Cohen and Wolf P.C.). Both gentlemen vigorously urged pension investors to undertake a background investigation of key principals, check documents and never shy away from asking tough questions. Springer added that "material non-disclosure of critical events in one's career" represents a major concern, along with the need to do additional follow-up to explain discrepancies. Late payment of credit card bills or a faillure to pay child support suggest carelessness with other people's money.

In his overview of case precedent and enforcement actions, Slavin offered that sloppy, obtuse or incomplete paperwork is usually the beginning of trouble. He reiterated that the use of outside parties does not absolve plan sponsors of their fiduciary duties. Oversight obligations remain.

Springer told listeners that Bayou's problems, pre-meltdown, were evident had investors carefully reviewed available facts. "Blatant conflicts of interest, overstating of employees' accomplishments, suits by former employees, suits filed by investors and even suits filed by hedge fund managers" should have caught investors' attention before money changed hands. Slavin suggests that we're in for a bumpy ride. "There is every indication that more litigation and enforcement is on its way."

Rosenberg agrees. "We are currently watching the rise of a pension/401(k) investment plaintiffs bar, clearly modeled after the securities litigation class action bar, ready and waiting to sue pension advisors and anyone else in the line of fire for excessive fees, poor investment choices, and anything else that affects returns in the plans." He adds that, "If the hedge fund’s lawyers are right, then aren’t the plan’s fiduciaries and other advisors potentially liable for breaching their own obligations to the plan and its participants to properly select and monitor plan investments? And if so, then their best defense should the newly forming class action bar come after them for this mess would be that, contrary to what the hedge fund’s lawyers say, they actually did full and complete due diligence, and therefore lived up to their obligations and cannot themselves be liable for the fact that the investment went south."

Wise words to remind us of the importance of good process!

If you are interested in purchasing the recordings of any webinars that have already taken place, click here. (Webinars are listed in chronological order.) Click here to register for any or all of the forthcoming webinars in this exciting new series. Speakers will address the roles of financial advisor and consultant on June 26. Valuation is the topic of the June 28 event.

Off to Fiduciary School

It's back to school time and that includes this author. I'm attending a training program to earn the Accredited Investment Fiduciary Analyst (TM) designation.

As we await Presidential approval of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, two and a half days spent discussing investment issues in a fiduciary context will keep attendees very busy.

Click here to access's article about financial designations.