Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Implications for Institutional Investors

For those who don't know, I am the lead contributor to an investment compliance blog known as Good Risk Governance Pays. I created this second blog as a way to showcase investment issues that had a wider reach than just the pension fund community. While I strive to publish different education-focused analyses on each blog, sometimes there are topics that I believe would be of interest to both sets of readers. A recent article that I co-wrote is one example. Entitled "Avoiding FCPA Liability by Tightening Internal Controls: Considerations for Institutional Investors and Corporate Counsel" (The Corporate Counselor, September 2014), Mr. H. David Kotz and Dr. Susan Mangiero explain the basics of the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act. Examples and links to reference materials are included, along with a discussion as to why this topic should be of critical importance to pension funds and other types of institutional investors. Click to download a text version of "Avoiding FCPA Liability by Tightening Internal Controls: Considerations for Institutional Investors and Corporate Counsel."

Brown M&Ms and Investment Service Provider Due Diligence

 

According to marketing guru Steve Jones, parties seeking to do business with one another can learn a lot from rock musician David Lee Roth. As explained in "No Brown M&M's: What Van Halen's Insane Contract Clause Teaches Entrepreneurs" (Entrepreneur Magazine, March 24, 2014), each of their agreements included a rider that was designed to force a promoter to pay attention to the band's true objective about ensuring safety. By adding what may have seemed like a silly provision about "melt in your mouth" candies being unwelcome, Van Halen was testing whether the promoter had read the contract in its entirety and was therefore more likely to install equipment properly. "If any brown M&M's were found backstage, the band could cancel the entire concert at the full expense of the promoter," leaving him or her with a possible loss in the millions of dollars.

In institutional investment land, there are intriguing parallels. For one thing, there is the safety issue. If a pension plan is poorly managed, beneficiaries may suffer. Second, if there is confusion or ambiguity about who is supposed to do what, when, how and at what price, there are likely to be disputes and economic consequences. There is a growing number of lawsuits and regulatory investigations that are scrutinizing service providers and/or the pension plan trustees who are tasked with diligently selecting them.

The developing market in outsourcing various services to a third party is yet another reason for paying close attention to the quality of engagement letters and vendor contracts. Earlier this year, the ERISA Advisory Council announced its plan to study "current contracting practices with respect to outsourced services, including provisions such as termination rights, indemnification, liability caps, service level agreements, etc. that might assist plan sponsors and other fiduciaries in negotiating service agreements."See "Outsourcing Employee Benefit Plan Services."

As someone who has done business intelligence research and trained investment fiduciaries and their advisors, I often hear the same frustration being expressed about a gap in expectations. Budget-strapped buyers want more for less. Consultants, asset managers and banks say they are searching for ways to satisfy their clients while still being able to earn a reasonable rate of return for their efforts. One solution is to streamline operations, to the extent possible, while acknowledging any fiduciary implications associated with prevailing law and governance standards. If cutting corners to preserve a profit margin ends up sacrificing requisite quality, trustees could be at risk of being investigated for anemic oversight of service providers. Vendors could be at risk for failing to deliver contractual services.

Based on my work for both defense and plaintiff counsel (depending on the matter and whether there is a counterclaim), a poorly worded agreement can be a potential trouble spot. Another hugely important issue is whether a service provider has self-identified as a fiduciary. An attorney or judge may categorize a particular service provider as a functional fiduciary even if a written contract is silent on that point. Trust counsel can play a critical role in assisting with negotiations before authorized persons sign on the dotted line.

ERISA attorneys David C. Kaleda and Theodore J. Sawicki address the issue of fiduciary status in a 2012 article for the National Society of Compliance Professionals. See "Should You Have a Formal ERISA Compliance Program?" In a recent discussion about the best practices for creating and adhering to service level agreements, ERISA attorney Howard Pianko expressed his strong view that there are numerous ways to ensure "plausibility" and still be able to hire affordable outside organizations to assist. He went on to describe the advantages of having a systematic mechanism in place such as the Six Sigma type model that his firm employs. Click to read about Seyfarth Lean. (Having earned a Green Belt in Six Sigma, I can attest firsthand to the upside of developing a process to control quality.) 

For those involved in the selection and oversight of service providers or the delivery of said services, ask yourself if you know as much about an existing or anticipated contract as you should.

Deciding When to Tweak or Overhaul a Pension Plan

People in my family buy things to last. It doesn't always work out the way we want. For example, we can't watch internet movies through our television set because we have yet to upgrade to a newer box that has the technology to allow this to happen. However, sometimes it is better to upgrade, even if there is a short-term incremental cost to do so. I learned this lesson the hard way in recent weeks. Sick of an old laptop that constantly froze on pages with too many graphics and a printer that only worked when I cleaned the print head (and that became a frequent occurrence), I made a beeline to Staples. During my discussion with the technology salesperson, he agreed with me that the immediate outlay of buying new productivity tools would be a lot cheaper than upgrading with the purchase of a few parts. The speed, storage and ability to use newer versions of software were a few of the advantages we discussed.

Change can be a good thing or not. The concept of evaluating when to tweak plan design or asset allocation mix (or a host of other decisions), as compared to carrying out a complete overhaul, applies to retirement plans. Of course this assumes that it is even possible to modify. For a defined benefit plan that is grossly underfunded or a defined contribution plan that is set up to keep workers happy by offering a particular group of investments, reversing course could be problematic. On the flip side, a sponsor that can effect change that would be deemed advantageous by participants but does not take action could be accused of bad practices or worse. Keep in mind that lots of ERISA lawsuits allege actions that a fiduciary committee could have taken. The important thing is to be vigilant about what has to be done on an ongoing basis and respond accordingly,

At least some plan sponsors are taking heed of the need to review where things stand. According to a recent Aon Hewitt survey, 62 percent of polled 220 U.S. companies with traditional pension benefit offerings vowed to "adjust their plan's investments to better match the liabilities in the year ahead." Some respondents affirmed their intent to consider increased allocations to fixed income securities and hedging strategies, once their funding status improves. One out of eight companies queried are evaluating plan funding status as often as once per day. Click to download "2014 Hot Topics in Retirement: Building a Strategic Focus."

I have a t-shirt that reads "Change is good. You go first." It always makes me chuckle. Even when change is not warranted, it is important to demonstrate that at least someone has thought about risk factors and alternative ways to mitigate those identified uncertainties.Maybe the t-shirt should instead read "Assessing whether change makes sense is an important part of a fiduciary's responsibilities."

Private Equity Performance and Underfunded Pensions

Adopting a "half glass full" attitude, my co-author and I wrote about the business opportunities for private equity fund general partners ("GPs") with portfolio company problems. In "GPs Eye New Ruling" (Mergers & Acquisitions, December 2013 Issue) by ERISA attorney David Levine and Accredited Investment Fiduciary Analyst, Dr. Susan Mangiero, we talk about the aftermath of a recent legal decision that has the private equity world on high alert.

By way of background, in Sun Capital Partners v. New England Teamsters & Trucking Industry Pension Fund, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit ruled that a private equity fund can be held liable for the pension obligations of a portfolio company. If left unchecked, private equity funds (and their limited partners such as pension plan investors) could see a diminution of performance for any number of reasons. For one thing, a GP may be unable to exit a position within a reasonable period of time if potential buyers get scared of being saddled with an expensive, underfunded retirement plan. In addition, cash that was otherwise earmarked to finance new growth projects may be used instead to comply with statutory contribution rules. Indeed, I have carried out financial analyses for prospective buyers on the basis of how much "extra" a pension problem is likely to cost.

While the downside possibilities are real, Attorney Levine and I point out that "lessons learned" from the Sun Capital decision enable a GP to take action preemptively as a way to potentially "maximize value from portfolio companies while also mitigating future risk." Savvy asset managers can adapt their due diligence process to help avoid any issues that could preclude an exit within the typical three to seven year time period from an initial funding round. Some of the many steps that a GP can take include, but are not limited, to the following:

  • To the extent that a private equity fund is relying on the position that it is not a “trade of business” and is therefore not subject to liability for a portfolio company’s pension underfunding, it is wise to review the potential economic, fiduciary and legal risks should this position be challenged in court.
  • Review its holdings that are at least 80 percent owned by the private equity fund. Total equity exposure should include common stock, preferred stock and possibly economic rights associated with warrants and/or equity derivatives such as swaps. Although a core focus of any such review should be with respect to holdings subject to jurisdiction in the First Circuit (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, and Rhode Island), a broader review of holdings elsewhere might also be considered.
  • Review underfunded pension plans before and after each acquisition of a portfolio company in order to develop strategies for addressing the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation’s aggressive litigation positions that it has been taking lately. Failure to do so could result in unnecessary delays in connection with corporation transactions, including the sale of portfolio companies. Examine the collective bargaining agreements for any or all portfolio companies. Although the Sun Capital Partners case was about liability for pension funding obligations under a multiemployer pension plan (i.e., a pension plan maintained independent of an employer pursuant to collective bargaining), there is some concern that the logic of Sun Capital Partners might be extended to conclude that a private equity fund is conducting a “trade of business” under the Internal Revenue Code through its management and oversight of portfolio companies. A decision concluding that a fund is a trade or business for Internal Revenue Code purposes could impact a fund’s representations of its attempts to minimize its unrelated business income tax liability and/or its acceptance, pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code, as a trade or business.
  • Assess the economic, fiduciary and legal attractiveness of all employee benefit plans that are offered by private equity portfolio companies. This includes traditional defined benefit pension plan, 401(k) plans, and health and welfare arrangement. Individually and collectively, ERISA plans can carry significant liabilities that have the potential to (a) materially reduce overall business profitability (b) increase insurance premiums (c) lead to expensive litigation and/or regulatory enforcement (d) impede liquidity and (e) hamper capital raising. As a result, a general partner may never be able to realize the growth targets that motivated a particular investment in the first place. Just as significant, a private equity fund may find itself limited in its ability to exit a particular investment.
  • Meet with retirement-focused advisers, actuaries and counsel before investing in a new portfolio company. The due diligence analysis should be comprehensive. This means that a private equity fund will want to assess both the current and projected pension plan liabilities for a portfolio company as well as the riskiness of its investments in its pension and 401(k) plan. If a pension plan’s assets are illiquid or overly conservative, a deficit may occur or grow bigger. It is likewise important to understand whether the assumptions underlying actuarial calculations are overly optimistic. The objective is to understand the seriousness of a given situation in terms of economic, fiduciary and legal vulnerability.
  • Assess the accounting impact for any and all retirement plans. Be prepared to explain performance volatility to LPs as the result of an ERISA problem.
  • As the family of “de-risking” products continues to expand, consider restructuring a portfolio company’s ERISA plan if, by doing so, a private equity fund owner can improve the likelihood of an exit within its target time horizon. However, because ERISA’s fiduciary rules impose a duty of loyalty to participants and beneficiaries, decisions on de-risking should be evaluated under these standards.
  • Determine, in conjunction with ERISA counsel, whether to engage an “independent fiduciary” for purposes of evaluating an array of possible restructuring solutions. Buying annuities to settle pension liabilities or investing in employer securities or other “hard to value” assets are examples.
  • Recognize that the Sun Capital Partners decision could encourage further litigation and regulatory activities. Private equity funds might be well served to consider whether minor tweaks to their structure merit use, including the creation of additional services entities that are commonly used in operating company structures. Clarification of offering documents, careful monitoring of activities and/or comprehensive documentation of its involvement with portfolio companies can go a long way to help insulate a private equity fund from a finding that it is engaged in an Internal Revenue Code trade or business.

For further reading about this important legal decision and the economic and compliance imperatives, you can read earlier blog posts and link to various law firm memos on this topic. See "Pension Liability Price Tag For Private Equity Funds and Their Investors". Also see "More About Private Equity Funds and Pension IOUs."

Fiduciary Management For Pension Plans

Besides being knowledgeable about medicine, nutrition and state-of-the-art health research, my doctor has a great sense of irony. He says things that make me laugh out loud. When I saw him recently, I mentioned how much I was enjoying reruns of some older television shows like Quincy, M.E. He replied, in typical clever fashion, "yea, but Sam did all the work and Quincy took the credit." It struck a chord because his statement is mostly true. In case you never watched the popular series about a coroner who helps the police solve crimes, veteran actor Jack Klugman (now deceased) applies Criminal Scene Investigation ("CSI") like smarts and tenacity in pursuit of justice. Sam Fujiyama (played wonderfully by actor Robert Ito) is likewise a medical doctor. He works alongside Dr. Quincy and is portrayed as an integral part of uncovering the truth.

In pension land, it is often the case that sponsors think they have hired someone to play the role of helpful Sam. The notion is that the advisor, consultant or fund of funds professional will be paid a fee to carry out a certain level of due diligence about action items such as setting up or revising an appropriate investment strategy, selecting or terminating an asset manager, redesigning a plan or evaluating pension transfer structures. Once the engagement letter is signed and a retainer fee is in place, the plan sponsor, like Dr. Quincy, can breathe a sigh of relief. Help is supposedly on the way - maybe. The safety net concept attached to bringing a third party on board, combined with what a colleague of mine describes as fiduciary fatigue, is reflected in the global growth of firms that describe themselves as fiduciary managers. While the retirement plan regulatory regime varies by country, the investment outsourcing model is gaining sway in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The undeniable trend to delegate merits discussion.

Before employers get too comfortable and think that their pension problems now belong to someone else, it is noteworthy to acknowledge that there are more than a few lawsuits that have been filed against third parties. Some of them allege breach on the basis of a failure to properly oversee and respond accordingly.

My observations come from firsthand experience. I have served as an economic analyst or testifying expert on disputes between an institutional investor such as a retirement plan, endowment, foundation or family trust. For other matters, I have provided due diligence training to fiduciaries and board members or reviewed the risk practices in place prior to a vendor being selected or as part of a later review of said vendor, once hired. As the founder of an educational start-up company a few years ago, I had a front row seat to the ongoing discussions between buyers and sellers of investment, risk and valuation services. Information in the form of repeated and in-depth surveys and numerous conversations about what pensions, endowments, foundations, family offices and other types of trust investors want and need from those who provide advice is telling. One issue that came up often from institutional investors was how to benchmark the quality of the work being provided by a delegate. This is a critical subject, especially for those outsourced professionals who are doing a terrific job and want their clients to be satisfied.

The topic of service provider due diligence is timely, important and the focus of my presentation on October 25, 2013 as part of the American Conference Institute's 6th Annual ERISA Litigation Conference. Interested readers are welcome to download my fiduciary due diligence slides.

Pension Liability Price Tag For Private Equity Funds and Their Investors

I have long maintained that any individual or organization that invests in a company needs to check under the employee benefits hood before allocating money initially, and regularly thereafter. I can give you countless examples where incomplete due diligence led to an overly rich acquisition or investment that resulted in a new owner having to deploy cash to write checks to retirees and/or incur the costs of restructuring an otherwise untenable situation.

Failure to carry out a comprehensive ERISA-focused due diligence of a target portfolio company is not good for numerous reasons. Having done economic analyses of companies with underfunded pension plans, I know firsthand that it is often a rude awakening for investors such as private equity funds when they are confronted with the reality that what they want and what they end up with in terms of buying forecasted growth are not always the same. Reasons to worry include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • A private equity fund may not be able to realize its target rate of return because a portfolio company cannot sufficiently grow without cash that is now redirected to support employee benefit plans.
  • A pension plan that has invested in said private equity fund will be none too happy if performance falls short of expectations, especially for something that arguably should have (and could have) been considered and addressed as part of the original deal.
  • An unhappy pension fund investor may turn around and sue a private equity fund for alleged failure to have properly researched "what if" situations, taken on "too much" risk and disclosed too little information. Litigation in turn can be an expensive proposition for a private equity fund, making it even more difficult to achieve even minimum hurdle rates.

The issue of private equity ownership and portfolio company pension liabilities was heavily discussed as the result of a 2007 Appeals Board of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation ("PBGC") decision about ownership, control and responsibilities for portfolio company pension plan gaps. In "Private Equity Funds: Part of the ERISA Controlled Group?" (December 19, 2007), O'Melveny & Myers LLP attorneys Wayne Jacobsen and Jeff Walbridge explained that "[i]f the PBGC's position endures, it could have significant ramifications for private equity fund investments in portfolio companies that sponsor defined benefit pension plans...[t]he fund could be required to use any or all of its assets, including the ownership interests of the fund in any or all of its portfolio companies, to fund the pension obligations of the bankrupt portfolio company."

Imagine the happy faces in private equity land when the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts opined on October 18, 2012 in favor of Sun Capital Partners III, LP and related parties. According to "Potential ERISA Title IV Liabilities of Private Equity Firms - Eliminated by the Sun Capital Decision?" (November 2012), Edwards Wildman attorney Mina Amir-Mokri describes the decision as a "significant victory for private equity firms" but explains that Sun Capital Partners v. New England Teamsters & Trucking Industry Pension Fund was to be appealed.

On July 24, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit reversed the earlier decision and put private equity funds in a potential liability position once again. According to "Private Equity Funds Further Exposed to Portfolio Company Pension Plan Liabilities" (July 29, 2013) Latham & Watkins attorneys Jed Brickner and Austin Ozawa offer post-opinion practical hints such as the need for private equity firms to "carefully consider how to structure their funds and acquisition structures to avoid characterization as a trade or business and avoid inclusion in the same controlled group as their portfolio companies." Additionally, they urge private equity funds to pay attention to the "structure of their funds' investments"...possibly "dividing their investment between two or more of independently managed funds with distinct portfolios to support a finding that no individual fund (or group of 'parallel' funds) controls any portfolio company (and no set of funds is treated as a joint venture). Paul Hastings attorneys Stephen H. Harris, Eric R. Keller, Ethan Lipsig and Mark Poerio assert that private equity funds would do well to own "less than 80% of a portfolio company"...perhaps via "thoughtful adjustments to ownership structures and management operations" that can help to reduce the exposure to portfolio company pension liabilities. See "Private Equity ERISA Alert: Consider ERISA Pension Liability Risks from Portfolio Plans" (July 2013).

While legal experts weigh in on the important issue of what responsibilities belong to private equity funds, if any, to portfolio company ERISA plan participants, institutional investors such as pensions, endowments, foundations and family offices - and their investment consultants and advisors - should take heed. If a private equity fund's exposure to a portfolio company with a problem pension plan ends up shrinking the wallets of institutional investors, serious questions will understandably be asked about who should have done what and when.

Hedge Fund and Private Equity Fund Due Diligence for Pension Funds

If you missed the Strafford CLE event on June 5, 2013 entitled "ERISA Pension Plans in 2013: Due Diligence for Hedge and Private Equity Funds: Avoiding the Pitfalls with Alternative Investments for Institutional Investors and Fund Managers," there is still an opportunity to purchase the recording. Click here for more information.

In the meantime, click to access the due diligence slides that were used by Dr. Susan Mangiero (Fiduciary Leadership, LLC), private fund attorney Rosemary Fanelli (CounselWorks) and ERISA attorney Tiffany Santos (Trucker Huss).

While we ran out of time with so much left to discuss beyond our assigned 90 minute slot, the two attorneys who spoke with me talked a lot about their perception of a changed environment. Their message was that institutional investors seem to be under a lot more pressure now to demonstrate that comprehensive due diligence activities have taken place. One attorney listener in the audience echoed this sentiment presented by the two legal speakers. He offered his opinion that an investment consultant or financial advisor should work closely with both an ERISA counsel as well as a fund attorney as part of the due diligence process.

Dr. Susan Mangiero Speaks at Fiduciary Conference About Due Diligence for Alternative Investments

I am delighted to have been invited to join the faculty of the Master’s Track at the annual fi360 investment fiduciary conference, held this year in Scottsdale, Arizona. Speakers include: (1) ERISA attorney Charles Humphrey (2) Edward Lynch, AIFA, RF, GFS with Fiduciary Plan Governance, LLC (3) Dr. Susan Mangiero, AIFA, CFA, FRM with Fiduciary Leadership, LLC and (4) pension auditor Michelle Sullivan, CPA with Freed Maxick CPAs

The fi360 Master’s Track offerings are created especially for those with a knowledge of fiduciary standards and how that standard applies to the topics being presented.

Our session is entitled "Due Diligence for Alternative Investments." Our panel will focus both on the legal issues and the internal control compliance issues that cannot be ignored by anyone with a fiduciary responsibility to prudently select and monitor. This session will describe the impact of Dodd-Frank on investing in alternatives, various court cases and regulatory enforcement actions as well as the DOL/IRS regulatory guidance on alternative investment allocations. Click to read more about this session and the other sessions to be presented at this conference of investment fiduciary professionals from April 17 to April 19.

The Oops Factor and a Crackdown on Retirement Plan Advisors

In recent discussions with asset managers, pension trustees and consultants, investment fraud continues to attract attention. It is no surprise that people want to know more about what constitutes bad practice versus crossing the line, especially in the aftermath of a devastating few years of economic losses. New disclosure regulations are another catalyst for learning more about how to avoid trouble. Email your request if you want more information about what can be done to detect fraud and/or would like to receive research and thought leadership on the topic of investment fraud.

Impending changes to fiduciary standards and allegations of fiduciary breach likewise continue to create a stir.

In "The EBSA Cracks Down on Retirement Plan Advisors," AdvisorOne's Melanie Waddell (March 26, 2012) describes a material increase in enforcement actions brought by the U.S. Department of Labor ("DOL"), Employee Benefits Security Administration ("EBSA"). Besides effecting nearly 3,500 civil cases in 2011, EBSA closed 302 criminal cases with "129 individuals being indicted," "75 cases being closed with guilty pleas or convictions" and an excess of $1.3 billion in monetary damages collected. Quoting Andy Larson with the Retirement Learning Center, the article mentions fiduciary negligence as a key concern of regulation and a driving force behind a proposed expansion of ERISA fiduciary duties to numerous professionals who work with retirement plans in an advisory capacity.

ERISA Attorney David Pickle points out that fraud and embezzlement of 401(k) plan money have been investigated for years by the DOL and U.S. Department of Justice ("DOJ") but recent investigations are being done now as part of the formal Contributory Plans Criminal Project ("CPCP"). He observes that "the DOL is conducting an increasing number of investigations of financial service providers, including registered advisers, banks and trust companies (both as trustees or custodians but also as asset managers), and consultants. For other insights about ERISA pain points, read "An Excerpt From: K&L Global Government Solutions (R) 2012: Annual Outlook."

According to the ERISA enforcement manual, civil violations include:

  • Failure to operate a plan prudently and for the exclusive benefit of participants
  • Use of plan assets to benefit the plan administrator, sponsor and other related parties
  • Failure to properly value plan assets at the current fair market value
  • Failure to adhere to the terms of a plan (assuming that those terms are compatible with ERISA)
  • Failure to properly select and monitor service providers
  • Unlawfully taking action against a plan participant who seeks to exercise his or her rights.

Criminal violations include:

  • Embezzlement of monies
  • Accepting kickbacks
  • Making false statements.

The "oops - I didn't know" strategy is unlikely to serve those who work with or for pension plans. The spotlight continues to focus on ways to improve the management of $17+ trillion U.S. retirement system and rightly so. There is so much at stake for millions of people.

George Washington said that "In executing the duties of my present important station, I can promise nothing but purity of intentions, and, in carrying these into effect, fidelity and diligence.

ERISA and public pension trustees are likewise tasked to be faithful and diligent, among other things. For those who choose a different path, the outcome can be dire indeed. Jail time and stiff penalties as well as legal costs are a few of the potential costs associated with a fraud conviction, not to mention shame and the loss of income.

ERISA Pension Plans: Due Diligence for Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds

 

Join me on May 1, 2012 for a timely and interesting program about alternative investment fund due diligence and other considerations for ERISA plan sponsors, their counsel and consultants. Click here for more information.

This CLE webinar will provide ERISA and asset management counsel with a review of effective due diligence practices by institutional investors. Best practices will be offered to mitigate government scrutiny and suits by plan participants.

Description

With the DOL's and SEC's new disclosure rules and heightened concerns about compliance and valuation, corporate pension plans that invest in alternatives must focus on properly vetting asset managers more than ever before or risk being sued for poor governance and excessive risk-taking.

The urgencies are real. The use of private funds by asset managers is crucial for 401(k) and defined benefit plan decision makers. Understanding the obligations of private funds is essential to any retirement funds with limited partnership interests.

In addition, suits and enforcement actions against asset managers make it incumbent on counsel to hedge fund and private equity fund managers to fully grasp and advise on full compliance with the duties of ERISA fiduciaries to plan participants.

Listen as our ERISA-experienced panel provides a guide to the legal and investment landmines that can destroy portfolio values and expose institutional investors and fund managers to liability risks. The panel will outline best practices for implementing effective due diligence procedures.

Outline

  • ERISA fiduciary duties for institutional investors
    1. Hedge funds and private equity funds compared to traditional investments
  • Regulatory developments
    1. Disclosure
    2. Compliance
    3. Valuation
  • Developments in private litigation involving pension plan fiduciaries and alternative fund managers
  • Best practices for developing due diligence plans

 

Benefits

The panel will review these and other key questions:

Following the speaker presentations, you'll have an opportunity to get answers to your specific questions during the interactive Q&A.

  • Regulatory developments
    1. Disclosure
    2. Compliance
    3. Valuation
  • Developments in private litigation involving pension plan fiduciaries and alternative fund managers
  • Best practices for developing due diligence plans
  • What are the regulatory concerns for ERISA pension plans that allocate assets to hedge funds and private equity funds?
  • What are the potential consequences for service providers that fail to comply with new fee, valuation and service provider due diligence regulations?
  • What can counsel to pension plans and asset managers learn from recent private fund suits relating to collateral, risk-taking, pricing, insider trading and much more?
  • How should ERISA plans and asset managers prepare to comply with expanded fiduciary standards?

 

Following the speaker presentations, you'll have an opportunity to get answers to your specific questions during the interactive Q&A.

Faculty

Susan Mangiero, Managing Director
FTI Consulting, New York

She has provided testimony before the ERISA Advisory Council, the OECD and the International Organization of Pension Supervisors as well as offered expert testimony and behind-the-scenes forensic analysis, calculation of damages and rebuttal report commentary for various investment governance, investment performance, fiduciary breach, prudence, risk and valuation matters.

Alexandra Poe, Partner
Reed Smith, New York

She has over 25 years of experience in investment management practice counseling managers of hedge funds, private equity funds, institutional accounts, mutual funds and broker-dealer advised programs. She counsels hedge and private equity fund advisers in all stages of their business and due diligence matters.

 

 

Pension Risk, Governance and CFO Liability

My November 2011 presentation about pension risk, governance and liability to financial executives struck a chord. Part of a Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") conference held at the New York Stock Exchange, attendees alternatively listened with interest while adding their insights from the front lines here and there. It is no wonder.

With ERISA litigation on the rise and 401(k) and defined benefit plan decisions often driving enterprise value in a material way, CFOs and treasurers have accepted the obvious. Corporate governance and pension governance are inextricably linked. Make a bad decision about an employee benefit plan and participants and shareholders alike may suffer. As a result, the CFO is exposed to fiduciary liability, career risk and the economic consequences of an outcome with broad impact.

Rather than rely on luck, there is no better time to apply discipline and rigor to employee benefit plan management for those companies that have not already done so. With trillions of dollars at stake, properly identifying, measuring and mitigating pension risks continues to be a critical element of fiduciary governance.

The complexity and ongoing nature of the risk management process is sometimes overlooked as less important than realizing a particular rate of return. Recent market volatility, large funding deficits and pressures from creditors, shareholders, rating agencies and plan participants make it harder for pension fiduciaries to avoid the adoption of some type of pro-active risk control strategy that effectively integrates asset and liability economics.

In "Pension risk, governance and CFO liability" by Susan Mangiero (Journal of Corporate Treasury Management, Henry Stewart Publications, Vol 4, 4, 2012, pages 311 to 323), the issues relating to a panoply of risks such as actuarial, fiduciary, investment, legal, operational and valuation uncertainties are discussed within a corporate treasury framework. Article sections include:

  • Enterprise risk management, employee benefit plans and the role of the CFO;
  • Conflicts of interest and pension plan management;
  • Risk management principles and 401(k) plans;
  • Pension liability and mergers, acquisitions and spinoffs;
  • Prudent process;
  • Pension risks; and
  • Benchmarking success.

Click to download "Pension risk, governance and CFO liability" by Dr. Susan Mangiero, CFA, FRM.

Prioritizing Risk Management

Since I launched my second blog in early 2011 to discuss risk management and investment best practices for a wider institutional audience beyond pension plans alone, I've seldom posted items in both places. Instead, I've tried to provide unique insights for employee benefit plan decision-makers on www.PensionRiskMatters.com and address broader regulatory, litigation and compliance issues on www.GoodRiskGovernancePays.com.

Today is an exception. I am reprinting my comments about risk management on both blogs because I believe so strongly in the importance of effective risk management as an integral component of investment governance. I hope you enjoy reading my comments, originally published on The Glass Hammer website. For those who are not familiar with the group, check out www.TheGlassHammer.com to learn about this award-winning blog and online community created for women executives in finance, law, technology and big business. See below or click on "Thought Leaders: Prioritizing Risk Management" to read the full text of this commentary about the benefits of risk mitigation well done and the costly consequences of inattention or sloppy practices.

Full Text:

Thought Leaders: Prioritizing Risk Management, July 14, 2011, 1:00 pm

Contributed by Susan Mangiero, PhD, Investment Risk Governance Consultant and Author

For those financial institutions which have yet to grasp the importance of identifying, measuring, managing, and monitoring risks on a comprehensive basis, time may not be on their side. Regulators and litigators alike are forcing change.

There are countless individuals who want better information from their service providers about risk and are prepared to vote with their feet if they don’t get good answers. After all, these institutional investors themselves are confronted with a bevy of new mandates that require transparency. The good news is that change opens the door to business opportunities. Enlightened organizations that have good processes in place and have nothing to hide can differentiate themselves from competitors. Providing clients with education and data tools offers yet another way for asset managers, consultants, banks, and advisors to forge stronger relationships with their pension, endowment, foundation and family office clients. On the flip side, those who are reluctant to explain how they manage their financial, operational and legal risks may lose clients or worse yet, could end up as defendants in a lawsuit.

Pay to play conflicts, questions about hidden fees, state and federal legislation and new accounting rules are a few of the forces at work to ensure that trillions of institutional dollars are in good hands. Effective investment stewardship is no longer a luxury. Recent surveys confirm that buy side decision-makers continue to emphasize governance and risk management for their organizations as well as providers of products and services. Institutional investors can ill afford to lose money after a tumultuous few years. Investment committee members who give short shrift to fiduciary duties could end up being investigated by regulators or sued. According to federal court data, the number of ERISA lawsuits is going up. Factor in investment arbitrations, enforcement actions and “piggyback” securities litigation allegations and it is clear that unhappy investors are not going to accept the status quo.

1. Fiduciary Focus

Besides efforts underway by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) has proposed an expanded definition of who should serve as a fiduciary to ERISA employee benefit plans. If adopted, countless more professionals will be tasked with demonstrating procedural prudence when it comes to the investment of over $30 trillion in money from corporate retirement plan sponsors. States are likewise seeking change in the form of trust law reforms that tighten accountability for the investment of monies held by endowments, foundations and charities. The questions now being addressed by judges and arbitration panels relate to “excessive” risk-taking, insufficient diversification, absence of independent assessments of hard-to-value instruments and oversight failures that have led to large losses that might have been highly preventable.

One asset management firm recently settled with the SEC for $242 million over a mistake with one of its risk management models. Another firm just settled with the SEC for $200 million due to problems in the way subprime securities were marked. A few years ago, a Northeast pension plan was sanctioned by the DOL for not having thoroughly vetted valuation numbers provided by one of its hedge fund managers.

When I testified before the ERISA Advisory Council in 2008, I emphasized that having good valuation policies and procedures is essential because it impacts so many decisions having to do with asset allocation, hedging and fees paid.

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Susan Mangiero Authors Pension Risk Blog For Fifth Year

Five years ago, valuation and risk management professional Dr. Susan Mangiero launched the first blog devoted exclusively to the topic of retirement plan governance and investment best practices. This unique blog, www.PensionRiskMatters.com, continues to serve as a resource for ERISA and public plan trustees, board members, actuaries, advisers, attorneys, auditors, consultants, money managers and regulators who want to explore important ideas about pension risk issues within a fiduciary framework.

Since the inception of www.PensionRiskMatters.com, the challenges that confront retirement plan decision-makers continue to mount. The U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) each seek to expand the definition and scope of investment fiduciary duties. Pension litigation is on the rise with some lawsuits being certified as class actions and resulting in multi-million dollar settlements. Liability insurance underwriters and federal, state and international regulators are asking tough questions about risk-taking and due diligence. Lawmakers actively examine issues relating to 401(k) fees. Taxpayers worry that more than $3 trillion of unfunded IOUs will strain local budgets. Pay-to-play and other types of conflict of interest investigations grab headlines. Investors worry that bad employee benefit plan economics could roil share prices or thwart corporate mergers.

Click here to read the rest of the March 23, 2011 press release about www.PensionRiskMatters.com.

Pensions and Real Estate Manager Due Diligence

Dr. Susan Mangiero, CFA, FRM is pleased to join a panel entitled "Manager Monitoring & Ongoing Due Diligence" on March 30, 2011 in New York City. Part of IMN's "Real Estate Investment & Search Consultants Congress: Meet the Gatekeepers" event, Dr. Mangiero will participate in a discussion about the following topics:

  • Factors used to evaluate fund managers;
  • Asset manager - client communication best practices;
  • Organization and strategies as relates to style shifts;
  • When to consider replacing a manager;
  • Duties of a limited partner;
  • Benchmarking against the agreed upon scope of work; and
  • Performance reporting pitfalls.

According to statistics published by the Pension Real Estate Association ("PREA"), real estate equity accounts for an average of roughly 4.6 percent of surveyed plans that control about $5 trillion in assets (including single-employer public and corporate pensions, endowments, foundations and Taft-Hartley plans). About 90 percent of surveyed institutional investors state that they expect no change in allocation to this asset class. Given the size of monies being deployed to real estate and the various mechanisms used (including but not limited to commingled funds, direct investments, real estate investment trusts, joint ventures), a detailed discussion about manager due diligence is timely and helpful.

Use online registration code SP10 if you plan to attend this conference in the Big Apple on March 30.

Advisor Service Agreements: The Weak Link

Today's blog post is provided, courtesy of Mr. Phil Chiricotti, President of the Center for Due Diligence. Since the topic of contract review as an important element of proper due diligence is one which I have addressed elsewhere on www.pensionriskmatters.com and in my articles and speeches, I asked Phil for permission to reprint his article and he kindly agreed.         

                                          Advisor Service Agreements: The Weak Link

Enormous attention has been centered on retirement plan fees in recent years, including the new 408(b)(2)disclosure requirements. The liability has also increased for those who fail to comply. Lost in this shuffle is the fact that fees are only one piece of the puzzle.

While a well drafted, reviewed and understood service agreement can help preclude errors and claims, the service agreement is also the primary defense against liability caused by service provider mistakes and negligence. In spite of this important role, many plan sponsors - particularly small plan sponsors - sign standard service agreements without adequate review or counsel.

In addition to agreeing to vague service agreements, some sponsors engage advisors without a service agreement or verification of insurance coverage and bonding. As noted many times, most small plan sponsors also lack first party fiduciary liability insurance. A combination of the aforementioned is nothing less than a nuclear accident waiting to happen.

The DOL's new regulations provide an increase in both fee disclosure and clarity for comparative shopping, but 408(b)(2) does not preclude the need for an equitable service agreement. In our minds, the service agreement remains a weak link in the advisor vetting process, particularly in the small plan market. Indeed, the service agreement may not even reflect what was discussed and/or negotiated during the vetting process.

As noted by many attorneys, ERISA's primary focus has been on regulating the relationship between plan sponsors and participants. Beyond prohibited transactions and prior to the DOL's new disclosure regulations, little guidance was provided on how to manage the relationship between sponsors and service providers, including those assuming a fiduciary role.

The courts have not spoken uniformly about recourse between the plan and outside fiduciaries, but the plan sponsor's supervisory role, or the lack of it, has come under intense scrutiny in recent years. Because errors and disputes are a fact of life, it is long past time for the service agreement to become an integral part of the advisor vetting process from the beginning.

 

Bad Disclosures - Recipe For Disaster?

According to "State workers face privatization" by Jason Stein (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 6, 2011), over 300 Wisconsin State Department of Commerce employees may soon be classified differently. The stated goal is to better deploy its $183 million budget to try to create jobs. (Whether you believe that governments are the engine of jobs creation is a post for another day.)

Questions remain about the benefits for identified employees and whether they will be covered by the state's retirement system. A related question is whether the general public will have a true assessment of Wisconsin's retirement plan IOUs if these privatized workers are counted as "public" for some purposes but not for others. In reading the many comments posted for the aforementioned article, emotions are running high about the real costs associated with this decision. Clearly, more information would go a long way to quelling any concerns.

The topic of financial disclosures may soon create real problems for public plans and, by extension, ERISA plans that are sponsored by companies that issue stocks and/or bonds. In today's New York Times, Mary Williams Walsh reports that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") may be investigating the large California pension plan known as CalPERS. It's premature and inappropriate to speculate but the inference is that bond buyers may have been in the dark about the "true" risks associated with this $200+ billion defined benefit plan. If true, California could pick up an even bigger than expected tab and municipal security investors could be in a position of having paid too much to own state debt. See "U.S. Inquiry Said to Focus on California Pension Fund."

As recently as 2009, then Special Advisor to California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, David Crane, referred to public pension plan reporting as "Alice-in-Wonderland" accounting. He added that "state and local governments are understating pension liabilities by $2.5 trillion, according to the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College." Since these are legal contracts that bind the state, city or municipal sponsor, they are on the hook for bad results, with large cash infusions likely.

It's not rocket science to conclude that other states and municipalities could face the same type of securities regulation inquiry. Indeed, even ERISA plans are vulnerable to allegations of fraud or sloppy reporting if their risk disclosures are incomplete, inaccurate, misleading or all of the above. See "Testimony for Securities and Exchange Commission Field Hearing re: Disclosure of Pension Liability" (September 21, 2010). Investors want to know whether they have a striped horse or a zebra in their stable. They need and deserve a solid understanding of investment risks to which they are exposing themselves. That can only occur if accurate and complete information is provided. To its credit, CalPERS seems to be emphasizing risk-adjusted performance as paramount. A December 13, 2010 press release describes the adoption of a "landmark" asset allocation that emphasizes "key drivers of risk and return."

Email Dr. Susan Mangiero, CFA and certified Financial Risk Manager if you would like information about what a risk disclosure assessment entails for your organization or on behalf of a client(s). You may likewise be interested in one of our workshops for directors, trustees and/or members of the investment committee about performance reporting within a fiduciary and financial risk management framework.

Fees, Form 5500 and Fiduciary Liability - The New F Words

Please join Investment Governance, Inc. CEO - Dr. Susan Mangiero - for a one hour discussion with ERISA attorney, Linda Ursin, and Ms. Jamie Greenleaf, Senior Partner with Cafaro Greenleaf on June 29 from Noon to 1:00 PM EST.

Attendees will learn more about:

1. Assessing management fees for reasonableness
2. Form 5500 compliance rules
3. Fiduciary liability for failiure of oversight of service providers

And much more!

Click here to register for this free educational webinar.